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The first completed manuscript, called the original manuscript, was completed using a variety of scribes. Portions of the original manuscript were also used for typesetting. It was then discovered that much of the original manuscript had been destroyed by water seepage and mold. Surviving manuscript pages were handed out to various families and individuals in the s. Only 28 percent of the original manuscript now survives, including a remarkable find of fragments from 58 pages in The second completed manuscript, called the printer's manuscript , was a copy of the original manuscript produced by Oliver Cowdery and two other scribes.
Observations of the original manuscript show little evidence of corrections to the text. In , the manuscript was bought from Whitmer's grandson by the Community of Christ, known at the time as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Critical comparisons between surviving portions of the manuscripts show an average of two to three changes per page from the original manuscript to the printer's manuscript, with most changes being corrections of scribal errors such as misspellings or the correction, or standardization, of grammar inconsequential to the meaning of the text.
The printer's manuscript was not used fully in the typesetting of the version of Book of Mormon; portions of the original manuscript were also used for typesetting. The original manuscript was used by Smith to further correct errors printed in the and versions of the Book of Mormon for the printing of the book. In the late 19th century the extant portion of the printer's manuscript remained with the family of David Whitmer , who had been a principal founder of the Latter Day Saints and who, by the s, led the Church of Christ Whitmerite.
During the s, according to the Chicago Tribune , the LDS Church unsuccessfully attempted to buy it from Whitmer for a record price. LDS president Joseph F. Smith refuted this assertion in a letter, believing such a manuscript "possesses no value whatever. The LDS Church had not sought to purchase the manuscript.
The original publication did not have verse markers, although the individual books were divided into relatively long chapters. Just as the Bible's present chapter and verse notation system is a later addition of Bible publishers to books that were originally solid blocks of undivided text, the chapter and verse markers within the books of the Book of Mormon are conventions, not part of the original text.
Publishers from different factions of the Latter Day Saint movement have published different chapter and verse notation systems. The two most significant are the LDS system, introduced in , and the RLDS system, which is based on the original chapter divisions. The following non-current editions marked major developments in the text or reader's helps printed in the Book of Mormon. Although some earlier unpublished studies had been prepared, not until the early s was true textual criticism applied to the Book of Mormon.
One aspect of that effort entailed digitizing the text and preparing appropriate footnotes, another aspect required establishing the most dependable text. To that latter end, Stanley R. Larson a Rasmussen graduate student set about applying modern text critical standards to the manuscripts and early editions of the Book of Mormon as his thesis project—which he completed in To that end, Larson carefully examined the Original Manuscript the one dictated by Joseph Smith to his scribes and the Printer's Manuscript the copy Oliver Cowdery prepared for the Printer in — , and compared them with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd editions of the Book of Mormon to determine what sort of changes had occurred over time and to make judgments as to which readings were the most original.
Smith began to take full account of Larson's work and to publish a Critical Text of the Book of Mormon. The third volume of that first edition was published in , but was already being superseded by a second, revised edition of the entire work,  greatly aided through the advice and assistance of then Yale doctoral candidate Grant Hardy , Dr. Thomasson , Professor John W. However, these were merely preliminary steps to a far more exacting and all-encompassing project. In , with that preliminary phase of the project completed, Professor Skousen took over as editor and head of the FARMS Critical Text of the Book of Mormon Project and proceeded to gather still scattered fragments of the Original Manuscript of the Book of Mormon and to have advanced photographic techniques applied to obtain fine readings from otherwise unreadable pages and fragments.
He also closely examined the Printer's Manuscript then owned by the Community of Christ —RLDS Church in Independence, Missouri for differences in types of ink or pencil, in order to determine when and by whom they were made. He also collated the various editions of the Book of Mormon down to the present to see what sorts of changes have been made through time.
Thus far, Professor Skousen has published complete transcripts of the Original and Printer's Manuscripts,  as well as a six-volume analysis of textual variants. Yale University has in the meantime published an edition of the Book of Mormon which incorporates all aspects of Skousen's research. Differences between the original and printer's manuscript, the printed version, and modern versions of the Book of Mormon have led some critics to claim that evidence has been systematically removed that could have proven that Smith fabricated the Book of Mormon, or are attempts to hide embarrassing aspects of the church's past    with Mormon scholars viewing the changes as superficial, done to clarify the meaning of the text.
The LDS version of the Book of Mormon has been translated into 83 languages and selections have been translated into an additional 25 languages. In , the LDS Church reported that all or part of the Book of Mormon was available in the native language of 99 percent of Latter-day Saints and 87 percent of the world's total population. Translations into languages without a tradition of writing e. Typically, translators are members of the LDS Church who are employed by the church and translate the text from the original English. Each manuscript is reviewed several times before it is approved and published.
In , the LDS Church stopped translating selections from the Book of Mormon, and instead announced that each new translation it approves will be a full edition.
Book of Mormon - Wikipedia
Such films in LDS cinema i. The Journey and Passage to Zarahemla In , a long-running religious satire musical titled The Book of Mormon , by the South Park creators, premiered on Broadway , winning 9 Tony Awards , including best musical. The LDS Church, which distributes free copies of the Book of Mormon, reported in that million copies of the book have been printed since its initial publication.
The initial printing of the Book of Mormon in produced copies.
The Book of Mormon has occasionally been analyzed in a non-religious context for its literary merits. The author labored to give his words and phrases the quaint, old-fashioned sound and structure of our King James's translation of the Scriptures; and the result is a mongrel -- half modern glibness, and half ancient simplicity and gravity. The latter is awkward and constrained; the former natural, but grotesque by the contrast.
Whenever he found his speech growing too modern -- which was about every sentence or two -- he ladled in a few such Scriptural phrases as "exceeding sore," "and it came to pass," etc. If he had left that out, his Bible would have been only a pamphlet. Terryl Givens wrote, "Searching for literary wonders in the Book of Mormon is a bit like seeking lyrical inspiration in the books of Chronicles or Judges. True or not, the Book of Mormon is a powerful epic written on a grand scale with a host of characters, a narrative of human struggle and conflict, of divine intervention, heroic good and atrocious evil, of prophecy, morality, and law.
Its narrative structure is complex. The idiom is that of the King James Version, which most Americans assumed to be appropriate for divine revelation The Book of Mormon should rank among the great achievements of American literature, but it has never been accorded the status it deserves, since Mormons deny Joseph Smith's authorship, and non-Mormons, dismissing the work as a fraud, have been more likely to riducule than to read it.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Book of Mormon disambiguation. Historical authenticity and criticism. Book of Mormon chronology. Historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon. List of Book of Mormon translations. This article is missing information about further criticism positive or negative.
Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. The Transformation of America, — , Pg. Outline of the Book of Mormon.
Retrieved July 30, Mormonism - Shadow or Reality? No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith 2d ed. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith. Losing a Lost Tribe: Archived from the original on Joseph Smith , xxii— Macmillan Publishing , pp. No man knows my history: Rough Stone Rolling New York: Knopf, , One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church. Studies of the Book of Mormon. Salt Lake City, UT: Reeve, Rex C, ed.
The Complete Original "Spaulding" Manuscript. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. It appears that Mormons are generally content to picture the Book of Mormon story in a setting that is factually wrong. For most Mormons, the limited geography models create more problems than they solve. They run counter to the dominant literal interpretation of the text and contradict popular folklore as well as the clear pronouncements of all church presidents since the time of Joseph Smith", Simon G.
For leaders of the Utah church, this is still out of the question. Hinckley in continually refer to Native LDS members in attendance as "children of Lehi" Southerton , pp. The Earliest Text , ed. Searching for Book of Mormon Lands p. Coleman , "The Book of Mormon: Strathearn, Gaye; Swift, Charles, eds.
The Most Correct Book: November , "Living by Scriptural Guidance" , Ensign: Retrieved 14 April Another Testament of Jesus Christ" , mormonnewsroom. Packer , "Scriptures" , Ensign , November Oaks , "'Another Testament of Jesus Christ'" , Ensign , March reporting that Benson told a meeting of church leaders on 5 March that "[t]his condemnation has not been lifted, nor will it be until we repent".
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April , "Moroni's Promise" , Ensign: We met on Tinder! Online dating can be a useful thing. The Egberts, Murphy, and Canfield agree that dating apps should be treated as close to real life as possible and that LDS singles should apply the same standards they have in real life there, being selective about who they like and focusing more on interacting in person beyond the app. Young single adults who are reluctant to try dating via app currently have another option that is gaining lots of traction in the LDS world.
Perhaps the biggest draw is that users can meet people with the same standards without fear of inappropriate behavior or advances — the app prohibits it. Mutual is currently only available on iOS, but the creators have started a Kickstarter campaign to make the app available for Android users as well.
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The question still stands: For many LDS singles, the answer is a resounding yes — they can and do work, but only with the right motives and approach. Arianna makes up Star Wars plot theories in her free time and has a thing for free soloing sketchy rock walls that she then struggles to get back down from. She graduated from Utah State with an English degree in and is currently living the post-grad dream of writing lots of stuff without getting paid. You can read more of her stories at igobyari. From Tinder to Temple: Growing up, Jillian Sewell spent Sundays dreaming of her perfect spouse.
When she enrolled in Brigham Young University, Mormonism's flagship school, Sewell expected to get married right away. When I didn't, I thought I wasn't good enough. Upon returning from her Mormon mission in New Hampshire, Sewell felt unable to break into the "competitive" dating pool at BYU, where appearance is paramount. After a semester, Sewell returned home to Arizona, where she prayed for help finding a husband. I feel like Heavenly Father, he has so many resources -- and Mutual is one of them.
Sewell met her husband on the app soon after joining and the two were happily married this year. Mormons today face longer tenures in singledom and a skewed gender ratio. There are Mormon women for every Mormon men, according to one study , creating a statistical dilemma that complicates church leadership's bold project to ensure all youth attain a temple marriage. In late July, local church leader Wayne Janzen held a conversation with women in a Washington, DC singles ward, asking them to air their dating grievances. He validated their frustration with what one woman said was a "lack of options.
Though you'll rarely hear about it from a pulpit, Mormon leaders are concerned with the continuity of their religion. Their solution was to continue investing in singles wards, creating stronger nuclei for Mormon singles to congregate outside of Utah.
They even created a church building in Arlington, Virginia exclusively for singles, a first for the faith. Today, the singles community in the DC metro area comprises its own "stake," the Mormon term for a group of congregations, similar to a diocese. It has grown to roughly 5, members.
Janzen is the stake president of this singles community. In his meeting with single women this summer, he said leadership became especially concerned by unmarried Mormons about a decade ago. Janzen said Mormon singles know they should be seeking a spouse, and professed faith that all who seek shall find.
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But he didn't say how. At the end of the conversation, he implored the women. The founder of Mutual says that while some people are just on the app to date, he considers marriage to be the "ultimate success. For most of his life, Brown, the lawyer, felt he had three dating options. Ranked in order of preference, they were: While the LDS church does not encourage loveless marriages, they present marriage as a choice between a church-sanctioned marriage or no marriage at all -- an attempt to dissuade singles from looking outside the faith for companionship.
Mormon doctrine is clear that temple marriage is essential to enter the highest echelons of heaven, and leadership never encourages interfaith dating or marriage. That messaging made an impact on Brown, who said he did not consider dating a non-Mormon until he was nearly 30, when he was at a low point in his life and was tempted to try secular dating apps.
Brown's realization is a radical idea within Mormonism -- one only found on the fringes of the faith. Some Mormons who flirt with dating non-members live in areas with scant Mormon populations or feel they have exhausted their options at church.